sl/plan9 OK, uriel.

date: 2018-02-05 layout: post title: Introduction to POSIX shell

tags: [shell, instructional]

What the heck is the POSIX shell anyway? Well, the POSIX (the Portable Operating System Interface) shell is the standard Unix shell - standard meaning it was formally defined and shipped in a published standard. This makes shell scripts written for it portable, something no other shell can lay claim to. The POSIX shell is basically a formalized version of the venerable Bourne shell, and on your system it lives at /bin/sh, unless you’re one of the unlucky masses for whom this is a symlink to bash.

Why use POSIX shell?

The “Bourne Again shell”, aka bash, is not standardized. Its grammar, features, and behavior aren’t formally written up anywhere, and only one implementation of bash exists. Without a standard, bash is defined by its implementation. POSIX shell, on the other hand, has many competing implementations on many different operating systems - all of which are compatible with each other because they conform to the standard.

Any shell that utilizes features specific to Bash are not portable, which means you cannot take them with you to any other system. Many Linux-based systems do not use Bash or GNU coreutils. Outside of Linux, pretty much everyone but Hurd does not ship GNU tools, including bash^1. On any of these systems, scripts using “bashisms” will not work.

This is bad if your users wish to utilize your software anywhere other than GNU/Linux. If your build tooling utilizes bashisms, your software will not build on anything but GNU/Linux. If you ship runtime scripts that use bashisms, your software will not run on anything but GNU/Linux. The case for sticking to POSIX shell in shipping software is compelling, but I argue that you should stick to POSIX shell for your personal scripts, too. You might not care now, but when you feel like flirting with other Unicies you’ll thank me when all of your scripts work.

One place where POSIX shell does not shine is for interactive use - a place where I think bash sucks, too. Any shell you want to use for your day-to-day command line work is okay in my book. I use fish. Use whatever you like interactively, but stick to POSIX sh for your scripts.

How do I use POSIX shell?

At the top of your scripts, put #!/bin/sh. You don’t have to worry about using env here like you might have been trained to do with bash: /bin/sh is the standardized location for the POSIX shell, and any standards-conforming system will either put it there or make your script work anyway.^2

The next step is to avoid bashisms. There are many, but here are a few that might trip you up:

The easiest way to learn about POSIX shell is to read the standard - it’s not too dry and shorter than you think.

Using standard coreutils

The last step to writing portable scripts is to use portable tools. Your system may have GNU coreutils installed, which provides tools like grep and cut. Unfortunately, GNU has extended these tools with its own non-portable flags and tools. It’s important that you avoid these.

One dead giveaway of a non-portable flag is long flags, e.g. grep --file=FILE as opposed to grep -f. The POSIX standard only defines the getopt function - not the proprietary GNU getopt_long function that’s used to interpret long options. As a result, no long flags are standardized. You might worry that this will make your scripts difficult to understand, but I think that on the whole it will not. Shell scripts are already pretty alien and require some knowledge to understand. Is knowledge of what the magic word grep means much different from knowledge of what grep -E means?

I also like that short flags allow you to make more concise command lines. Which is better: ps --all --format=user --without-tty, or ps -aux? If you are inclined to think the former, do you also prefer function(a, b, c) { return a + b + c; } over (a, b, c) => a + b + c? Conciseness matters, and POSIX shell supports comments if necessary!

Some tips for using short flags:

A good reference for learning about standardized commands is, once again, the standard. From this page, search for the command you want, or navigate through “Shell & Utilities” -> “Utilities” for a list. If you have man-pages installed, you will also find POSIX man pages installed on your system with the p postfix, such as man 1p grep. Note: at the time of writing, the POSIX man pages do not use dashes if your locale is UTF-8, which makes searching for flags with / difficult. Use env LC_ALL=POSIX man 1p grep if you need to search for flags, and I’ll speak to the maintainer of man-pages about this.